Sustainable urban development requires the use of underground space for a variety of reasons. Underground spaces have historically provided physical support for surface structures and have also served as a place of spiritual expression.
In recent years, many urban services have been shifted underground. These services include utilities, wastewater treatment facilities, parking facilities, etc with the help of construction materials like rock drill bits, split sets, or some types of equipment.
Currently, there is little coordination between aboveground and underground engineering research investments, and this can limit the benefits and reduce the risks of federal development projects. In addition, the construction of new underground infrastructure can be expensive, and few data exist to justify the initial investment.
A lifecycle assessment can provide data on costs, impacts, and benefits. Moreover, the lifecycle assessment can help planners evaluate the long-term costs of their projects.
A major issue facing urban planning and engineering is the use of underground space for the creation of sustainable urban development. Underground space has been used by humans for thousands of years as a place of refuge, useful resources for surface structures, and a place of spiritual expression.
Many modern urban services are also located underground, but we rarely consider their role in fostering sustainable urban development. But the changing nature of our planet is forcing us to consider the future of underground infrastructure and how it can contribute to sustainable urban development.
To meet the challenges of sustainable urban development, engineers and planners need to understand the complexities of the underground environment, including its interdependencies with society. They need to create realistic expectations, while also taking public perceptions into account. While some of these issues are straightforward, others are critical to national security.
Underground structures have a direct impact on groundwater temperature. As a result, there are a variety of challenges associated with this type of development. Whether the development is driven by economic or environmental concerns, it is important for the project owners to consider quantitative information on the impacts of the proposed construction.
Historically, the underground has been a place of physical support for surface structures. It has also been a place of spiritual expression. In recent years, many urban services have been moved underground. Today, they are used for many purposes. In addition to providing physical support for surface structures, the underground offers a unique place for urban services.
Underground engineering is a vital part of sustainable urban development. It integrates specific urban functions into a single, continuous location, thereby reducing the tangle of infrastructure common in urban areas.
This process also makes available more subsurface space, especially in areas with limited right-of-ways. Furthermore, it is a cost-effective option, especially if the value of the underground is factored into costs.
The interdisciplinary approach to sustainable urban development requires addressing interdependencies between disciplines to develop innovative solutions.
Such studies must consider risks and vulnerabilities in urban systems with a pile foundation and the human capacity, performance, and biology and physiology of urban dwellers. Such research should help managers and planners better understand how to manage complex infrastructures in changing environments.
Urban actors need to look into the potential of underground resources. The traditional mechanical models tend to be reductionist and can create conflicts between competing uses.
One notable example of this is the long-standing problem of subsidence in Mexico City. Heavy pumping of the urban aquifer has lowered groundwater levels and contributed to the sinking of lacustrine sediments. In some places, this has flooded basements.